The Posse Comitatus Act of 1878
20 Stat. L., 145
June 18, 1878
CHAP. 263 - An act making appropriations for the support of the Army for the fiscal year ending June thirtieth, eighteen hundred and seventy-nine, and for other purposes.
SEC. 15. From and after the passage of this act it shall not be lawful to employ any part of the Army of the United States, as a posse comitatus, or otherwise, for the purpose of executing the laws, except in such cases and under such circumstances as such employment of said force may be expressly authorized by the Constitution or by act of Congress; and no money appropriated by this act shall be used to pay any of the expenses incurred in the employment of any troops in violation of this section And any person willfully violating the provisions of this section shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor and on conviction thereof shall be punished by fine not exceeding ten thousand dollars or imprisonment not exceeding two years or by both such fine and imprisonment.
10 U.S.C. (United States Code) 375
Sec. 375. Restriction on direct participation by military personnel:
The Secretary of Defense shall prescribe such regulations as may be necessary to ensure that any activity (including the provision of any equipment or facility or the assignment or detail of any personnel) under this chapter does not include or permit direct participation by a member of the Army, Navy, Air Force, or Marine Corps in a search, seizure, arrest, or other similar activity unless participation in such activity by such member is otherwise authorized by law.
18 U.S.C. 1385
Sec. 1385. Use of Army and Air Force as posse comitatus
Whoever, except in cases and under circumstances expressly authorized by the Constitution or Act of Congress, willfully uses any part of the Army or the Air Force as a posse comitatus or otherwise to execute the laws shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than two years, or both.
Editor's Note: The only exemption has to do with nuclear materials (18 U.S.C. 831 (e)) ** http://www.dojgov.net/posse_comitatus_act.htm
ACT" (18 USC 1385): A Reconstruction Era criminal law proscribing
use of Army (later, Air Force) to "execute the laws" except
where expressly authorized by Constitution or Congress. Limit on use of
military for civilian law enforcement also applies to Navy by regulation.
Dec '81 additional laws were enacted (codified 10 USC 371-78) clarifying
permissible military assistance to civilian law enforcement agencies--including
the Coast Guard--especially in combating drug smuggling into the United
States. Posse Comitatus clarifications emphasize supportive and technical
assistance (e.g., use of facilities, vessels, aircraft, intelligence,
tech aid, surveillance, etc.) while generally prohibiting direct participation
of DoD personnel in law enforcement (e.g., search, seizure, and arrests).
For example, Coast Guard Law Enforcement Detachments (LEDETS) serve aboard
Navy vessels and perform the actual boardings of interdicted suspect drug
smuggling vessels and, if needed, arrest their crews). Positive results
have been realized especially from Navy ship/aircraft involvement. **
October 16, 2002
R. Price, Manager, Citizens For Legitimate